Winter begins. The veil between worlds thins. We remember the dead. And switch our focus to the inward. Tonight is the full moon of Winterfylleth, the time when the Norse and Anglo Saxons celebrated the end of the harvest and the start of winter. Similarly, next week is Samhain celebrated by the ancient Celts, and Halloween or All Hallows Eve in the Christian traditions.
At this time the earth appears to die, laying dormant through the dark cold times ahead. The leaves are changing colour and falling from the trees. The harvest has been collected from the fields and they lie empty. The livestock have been brought down from the pastures, the weakest animals are being culled for food and people return to their homes for feasting. Summer is over and winter is here. The days are getting much shorter and colder, the frosts have begun and animals are busy making their final preparations for winter. Traditionally it was believed to be bad luck to harvest anything after this date and therefore any remaining harvest is left as an offering to deities or nature spirits. It was a time to give offerings to the gods in thanksgiving for the good harvest the people had.
Historian Ronald Hutton says “A feast with ritual practices…was…well known in both ancient Ireland and ancient Scandinavia, and represented by folk practices in the uplands of Wales and Scotland. There was, however, no common rite as there had been at Beltane.” He further states that “there seems to be no doubt that the opening of November was the time a major pagan festival was celebrated” but that there is no evidence that it was connected with the dead or that it was the new year. Rather, the association with the dead came through Christianity and the development of All Souls Day. However, it was a time to guard against and propitiate supernatural forces.
Samhain is the most widely mentioned festival in Irish mythology and the Gaulish Colignay calendar also mentions it as the end of the pastoral year. It is mentioned as the first festival in the Irish tale of Tochmarc Emire as “Samhain, when summer goes to rest.” It is the time when the Morrighan and An Dagda mate in a river for victory at the second battle of Magh Tuiredh, and it is a time to honour Donn, the father of the Irish race and chief of the sons of Mil. He is the Celtic lord of the dead, the dark one who was drowned in the battle to invade Ireland. He now dwells on a small island named Tech Duinn, the waiting place of the dead before they journey to the Otherworld. In contrast, Historian Peter Berresford-Ellis says that the god Bile is also a god of the dead who transports souls to the Otherworld. Another story related to this time of harvest is the story of why offerings are given to the Tuathe De Danaan. After the Milesians (ancient Irish) conquered Ireland from the Tuatha De Danaan, the land was divided up with the Milesians on the land and the Tuathe De Danaan under the ground. But the Tuathe continued to destroy the crops and stop cows producing milk so an agreement was reached with An Dagda so that the Irish offered a portion of their harvest to the Tuathe De Danaan in exchange for their friendship and blessing on the land. The Cailleach Bheur, the old hag of winter can also be honoured at this time.
For the ancient Celts who split the year into two halves, Samhain marks the transition from the summer half of the year to the winter half, from life to death. They believed that any time or place of transition was sacred. Just like Beltane, at this time the veil between this world and the Otherworld was at its thinnest and therefore the spirit world and human world could interact. As a night of liminality, transition, uncertainty, chaos and danger, it was believed that many otherworldly beings would be roaming on this night.
Bede said October was named “Vuinter-fylleth” as it signified the beginning of winter, while November was named “blod-monath” because “in that month they consecrated to their gods the animals that they were about to kill.” This was when the annual slaughter of livestock occurred to reduce the number of animals kept through the lean months. Hutton says that pagan Scandinavia held its own major festival at the opening of winter, called Winter Nights, on the Saturday between 11th and 17th of October, but that there is no evidence this ever came to Britain.
From the Norse sources (Olafs Saga Helga), it states “that fall, the tidings were told to King Olaf at Thrandheim that the freeholders had held a feast attended by many at WinterNights. There was much drink there. The king was told that there was minni-ale blessed to the Aesir according to old custom. The story continued that cattle and horses were killed and the altars reddened with blood and blot made, and the prayer performed that should be made for good seasons.” And in Gisla Saga, it mentions that Thorgrimr held his Haustblot (harvest blot) at Winternights, to greet winter and “make a blessing to Freyr.” This was because the Scandinavian seasons are slightly different to the British seasons. This was also the time when some areas held Disablot to honour the Disir and there are references to Starkhadr’s grandmother Alfhildr making blessing to the idises and farm woman telling Sigvatr to go away because her household were making a blessing to the Alfar. So we can see that this was a very important time (one of the three important festivals of the year according to Olaf’s Saga). It was the time to celebrate the end of the harvest and the coming of winter with a feast and a sacrifice, particularly to the Alfar or Disir and Freyr. It is possible that the Alfar and Disir are related to the Ancestors in some way, particularly because of the association of the Alfar with the barrow mounds, and this is a belief shared by many modern Heathens. It seems this was a very family orientated and solemn feast at which uninvited guests were not allowed to attend.
Alaric Albertsson writes that this time was considered to be “Winterfinding” by the Saxons and coincided roughly with Halloween. At the beginning of Blotmonath there was much feasting as the weaker animals were culled from the herd and sacrificed to the gods. It was the beginning of the Wild Hunt when Woden road through the countryside gathering dead souls. There is no evidence that the Anglo-Saxons honoured their ancestors at this time, but it seems to fit well with the seasons and the practices of other Pagan people’s in Britain such as the Celts so it is a good time to remember them, perhaps with a Dumb Supper.
While there were fires lit in some areas on Samhain eve e.g. Scotland and Wales, this was not the case in Ireland, where Parshell Crosses were placed in the entrance to the house instead. Other practices at this time have included communal meals, candles being lit and prayers said for the dead, drinking and games, putting pieces of bread on windowsills for one’s ancestors, taking precautions against witches, divination by casting nuts into the bonfire to learn about death and marriage, carrying lights around in turnips and dressing up as monsters while causing mischief. It is also a time to sain and ward one’s property by walking the boundaries with fire and making rowan charms.
Gaelic reconstructionists avoid going out on this evening as the spirits as most active, or if they do, its in disguise. They light bonfires and carry flames around their property to protect and sain it. They carve turnip lanterns, hold big feasts, do divinations, give offerings to the gods and ancestors, leave food out for the dead and light candles for them. Its also a time to play games, sing songs and make a parshell cross.
Neo-pagans often celebrate this time with a dumb supper to honour the dead. Martinmas (11th November) was the traditional time to end the slaughter of animals and to taste the first new wine of the season.
For Anglo Saxons and Norse heathens, its a good time to honour Woden as psychopomp and the leader of the wild hunt across the winter skies, or to honour Hel as the goddess of death as well as the ancestors and elves. Frey/ Lord Ing can be honoured at this time as god of the harvest and of the alfar (elves) associated with the barrow mounds. In ancient times there is evidence of the practice of burning grains on the graves of ancestors as offerings, and it may also be a good time to do “sitting out” – sleeping on old burial mounds or graves in the hope of receiving a message from our ancestors. Anglo Saxon pagans may hold a Sumbel at this time, with toasts to the ancestors.
With the revival of Paganism, the practice of ancestor veneration, a practice of the ancient pagans once dead in the western world, has begun to grow in popularity again. This practice should also be a part of our lives. Winter Nights is a time of remembrance. It is a time to honour those who have died, whether friends, family or ancestors. It is a time to remember them and to be thankful for the role they have played in influencing our lives. They are not gone, they live on within us through our memories and genes, and within the earth as their atoms are reincarnated into a thousand different creations. Winter Nights reminds us that one day, we too must die. It is a time take stock of our lives and to meditate on the cycle of life and death, confronting a topic we too often do our best to avoid.
It is traditional to celebrate this festival by eating a large feast of late harvest foods e.g. pumpkins, apples, nuts, root vegetables and barmbrack bread. It’s also the traditional time for remembering our ancestors and those we have loved and lost e.g. by visiting their graves and putting fresh flowers there. Personally, I build an altar and put photos and mementos of those I have lost recently on it. I also put up my family tree. On Winter Nights I perform a ritual of remembrance, lighting a candle for each person I am remembering and holding a minutes silence in respect. I often have a party with friends, decorate the house and eat traditional foods like Pumpkin soup, Colcannon (mashed potato with kale or cabbage), baked apples and gingerbread. I also carve a pumpkin, make sloe gin, have a bonfire, leave out a meal for the ancestors and drink lots of mulled cider. Apples are a particularly good offering for ancestors to leave at grave sites or on your altar as they are seasonal and represent immortality in folklore. In Cornwall this time is celebrated there as Allantide, where it is customary to give an Allan apple to each family member as a symbol of good luck and children would often put it under their pillows.
Ronald Hutton – Stations of the Sun
Our Troth Volume 2
Travels Through Middle Earth – Alaric Albertsson
Path to the Gods – Swain Wodening